NASA Findings on Nibiru
"Other considerations that are sometimes brought into the discussion of the possibility of a tenth planet including the rapid disappearance of the dinosaurs and the corresponding appearance in dated core samples of Iridium in excessive amounts. This is explained as being due to unusual comet showers which were caused by Plante X disturbing the supply of comets in the inner Oort cloud (Whitmire and Matese (1985) and Matese and Whitmire (1986)).
Other possible mechanisms causing comets to enter the inner part of the solar system are nearby stars (Heisler, Tremaine and Alcock (1987)), and galactic tides (Morris and Muller (1986), Hesler and Tremaine (1986) and Torbett (1986)).
Another hypothesis is called Nemesis, a star which is a binary companion to our Sun and in a very eccentric orbit with respect to our Sun (Raup and Sepkoski (1984)). Such an object could come close enough to perturb the comets and cause concentrations of comets to come into the inner solar system at certain times. It could also disturb the comets such that it would cause a continuing supply of comets coming at different times. If all these effects were correct, this could explain a shower of comets and the demise of the dinosaurs. Nemesis would have a very long orbital period, approximately 26 million years, so that its effect on the outer planets would be very slight over the two hundred year period.
Planet X Predictions
Groups at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington and at Teledyne-Brown Engineering in Huntsville, Alabama, are attempting to solve for the orbit and present locations of the plant. Observations of both Uranus and Neptune are now being used, although each has its limitations. These calculations for Plant X are much more difficult than those predicting Neptune from its effects on Uranus. The systematic variations that are now observed are much smaller than those of Uranus two centuries ago; in fact they are not much larger than the observational uncertainties. In addition, the orbital period of Planet X is expected to be much larger than that of Neptune, probably 500 years and possibly as much as 1000 years....
Searching for Planet X
... The infra-red astronomical satellite (IRAS) surveyed the shy looking for objects radiating in the infra-red. Since this planet would be nearer than most other sources, warmer than other sources, it should appear relatively bright in the infra-red. The easies way it would be detected however, is by its motion with respect to the stars. The delectability of the motion of such a planet during the time between observations, and the accuracy with which the positions could be determined, is marginal. The IRAS results have not discovered the existence of a tenth planet, but the data are still being studied.
|Title:||Planet X - The current status|
|Authors:||Seidelmann, P. K.; Harrington, R. S.|
|Affiliation:||AA(U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC), AB(U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC)|
|Publication:||(BMFWF, Oesterreichische Forschungsgemeinschaft, Steiermaerkischer Wissenschafts- und Forschungslandesfonds, et al., Alexander von Humboldt Colloquium on Celestial Mechanics: Long Term Evolution of Planetary Systems, Ramsau, Austria, Mar. 14-18, 1988) Celestial Mechanics (ISSN 0008-8714), vol. 43, no. 1-4, 1987-1988, p. 55-68.|
|NASA/STI Keywords:||CERES ASTEROID, INFRARED ASTRONOMY SATELLITE, PLANET EPHEMERIDES, PLUTO (PLANET), COMPANION STARS, NEMESIS (STAR), PREDICTIONS, SOLAR SYSTEM|
AbstractTheoretical models of solar-system dynamics which predict the existence of a 10th planet (planet X) are surveyed and compared with recent observations. The history of the discoveries of Neptune and Pluto on the basis of discrepancies in the orbit of Uranus is recalled in detail, and the persistence of such discrepancies in 9-planet computations is considered. Particular attention is given to ongoing efforts to compute the current position of planet X, and to ground-based and space-based (IRAS and Pioneer) searches. Diagrams and graphs are provided.
|Title:||On the problem of the search for Planet X based on its perturbation of the outer planets|
|Authors:||Gomes, R. S.|
|Affiliation:||AA(Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)|
|Publication:||Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035), vol. 80, Aug. 1989, p. 334-343. (Icarus Homepage)|
|Origin:||STI; LPI [AN-891460%J]|
|NASA/STI Keywords:||ORBITAL MECHANICS, PERTURBATION THEORY, PLANETS, ASTRONOMICAL MODELS, GRAVITATION THEORY, STELLAR ORBITS|
|LPI Keywords:||PLANETS, GIANT PLANETS, PLANET X, PERTURBATIONS, GRAVITY EFFECTS, ORBITS, PROCEDURE, CALCULATIONS, URANUS, NEPTUNE, THEORETICAL STUDIES, DIAGRAMS, PARAMETERS, ASTRONOMY, CELESTIAL MECHANICS|
AbstractThe present consideration of the systematic residuals which emerge when Uranus and Neptune observations are compared to their theories will proceed from the supposition that these discrepancies are due to an unknown 'planet X'. An effort is accordingly made to ascertain the ideal region, rather than a specific position or positions, in which the existence of such a planet will account for the systematic residuals. The problematic relationship of the probable albedo of a planet X to the mass it must possess, in view of the present calculations, is assessed.
|Title:||Search for planet X|
|Authors:||Harrington, Robert S.|
|Affiliation:||AA(Naval Observatory, Washington, DC.)|
|Publication:||In NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Astronomy, 1991 p 53 (SEE N92-12792 03-89)|
|NASA/STI Keywords:||PERTURBATION, SKY SURVEYS (ASTRONOMY), SOLAR ORBITS, SPACE OBSERVATIONS (FROM EARTH), NEPTUNE (PLANET), URANUS (PLANET)|
AbstractThe observation of the region of the sky in which it is believed Planet X should now be, based on perturbations observed in the motions of Uranus and Neptune, was determined, and there was no reason to update that determination. A limited area of that region was photographed, and that will be continued. A given area is photographed with the twin 20 cm astrograph in New Zealand on two successive nights near the time that area is in opposition, and these plates are blinked in Washington to identify anything that has moved. The predicted region is in the south, which requires observations from a southern station, and it is in opposition in the April to June period, which means observations have not yet started for the year. Blinking will be done as soon as the plates are received in Washington.
|Title:||Planet X - No dynamical evidence in the optical observations|
|Authors:||Standish, E. M.|
|Affiliation:||AA(JPL, Pasadena, CA)|
|Publication:||Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 105, no. 5, p. 2000-2006. (AJ Homepage)|
|Origin:||STI; LPI [AN-930210%J]|
|NASA/STI Keywords:||NEPTUNE (PLANET), PLANETARY MASS, SOLAR ORBITS, SOLAR SYSTEM, URANUS (PLANET), EPHEMERIS TIME, MERCURY (PLANET), VENUS (PLANET)|
|LPI Keywords:||PLANETS, PLANET X, URANUS, NEPTUNE, ORBITS, PERTURBATIONS, ANALYSIS, EARTH-BASED OBSERVATIONS, ASTRONOMY, EPHEMERIDES, RESIDUALS, PARAMETERS|
AbstractIt is shown that the alleged 'unexplained anomalies in the motion of Uranus' disappear when one properly accounts for the correct value of the mass of Neptune and properly adjusts the orbit of Uranus to the observational data. Also, it is shown that each of the 'irregularities in the measured positions of Neptune' has a complete explanation within the framework of the presently known solar system. As a check of certainty, an actual planetary ephemeris is integrated which well fits the observations of Uranus. Minor systematic errors do remain in the data, but they are very small; they are easily explained by a number of uncertainties in the observations themselves. There is now known to be a mass concentration of significant size in the outer solar system - 1992 QB1. In comparison to any of the major planets, though, this object is miniscule. For the meridian circle observations, there is still no evidence which requires or even indicates the existence of any planet-sized object; there remains no need to hypothesize the existence of a tenth planet in the solar system.
file "pluto and planets x.pdf"
"As fro Pluto, its effect upon Uranus or Neptune produces a signal-to-noise ration of less than 1 to 100. Even the mere presence of Pluto can not be inferred from its gravitational effects; it si obvious that Pluto's discovery was not the result of a prediction from its perturbations."
"The ephemeris of Pluto is not satisfactory there is a significant signature remaining which is not yet understood"
|Title:||Pluto and Planets X|
|Authors:||Standish, E. M.|
|Affiliation:||AA(JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA)|
|Publication:||Completing the Inventory of the Solar System, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Proceedings, volume 107, T.W. Rettig and J.M. Hahn, Eds., pp. 163-170.|
|Keywords:||PLUTO, PLANET X, COVARIANCE, URANUS, NEPTUNE, EPHEMERIS, IERS REFERENCE FRAME, TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS|
AbstractThe discovery of Neptune was inevitable; its gravitational force causes residuals in the observations of Uranus which are large and undeniable. The subsequent attempts at repeating that type of discovery, however, have met with a notable lack of success, because they were doomed from the start: the remaining residuals are smaller than many of the known systematic errors which exist in the observations. It is now known that the discovery of Pluto, in contrast, was the result of a systematic search. While the ephemerides of Uranus and Neptune seem to have no unexplained problems, the ephemeris of Pluto does have problems. The observations span only a small portion of the planet's full period and they are prone to systematic zone errors in the catalogues. Furthermore, there is a large bias which can not be removed from the residuals by a mere orbit adjustment; its cause is presently unknown though it probably is the result of inhomogeneous data reductions. Such problems become especially important for navigational concerns with the Pluto Fast Flyby Mission. For that, optical navigation will provide certain relative ephemeris updates, but they will not be able to improve the uncertainties in the radial direction until only a few days before encounter. Improvements to the absolute ephemerides of Pluto will come from re-measurement of older photographic plates using newer measuring equipment, reductions of such measurements with respect to modern star catalogues (Hipparcos/Tycho) and new positional determinations using modern measuring techniques, such as photoelectric, CCD, and, possibly, radio measurements.
THE DEEP ECLIPTIC SURVEY.pdf
|Title:||The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. I. Description of Methods and Initial Results|
|Authors:||Millis, R. L.; Buie, M. W.; Wasserman, L. H.; Elliot, J. L.; Kern, S. D.; Wagner, R. M.|
|Affiliation:||AA(Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001; Visiting Astronomer, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.), AB(Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001; Visiting Astronomer, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.), AC(Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001), AD(Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139; Visiting Astronomer, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.; Also Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.), AE(Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139), AF(Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721)|
|Publication:||The Astronomical Journal, Volume 123, Issue 4, pp. 2083-2109. (AJ Homepage)|
|AJ Keywords:||Astrometry, Comets: General, Kuiper Belt, Methods: Observational, Planets and Satellites: General, Solar System: General, Surveys|
|Abstract Copyright:||(c) 2002: The American Astronomical Society|
AbstractWe report here initial results of the Deep Ecliptic Survey, an ongoing new search for Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Centaurs using the 8K×8K Mosaic CCD array on the 4 m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Within the interval covered in this paper, useful observations were obtained during seven nights in 1998 October and November, 1999 April, and 2000 February. We used a novel technique to efficiently find and determine positions of moving objects. Sixty-nine KBOs and Centaurs with apparent magnitudes between 20.6 and approximately the 24th magnitude were discovered. Nine or 10 of the newly discovered KBOs appear to be in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune, and four appear to be scattered-disk objects. Three objects were found that may be in the 4:3 resonance. Sixty-two of the objects reported here have been observed on at least one additional night and have received designations. Our own follow-up astrometry was done primarily with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in queue-scheduled mode and with the Steward Observatory 90 inch (2.3 m) telescope. Others, using a variety of telescopes, recovered a significant number of our objects. Although not a primary objective of the survey, positions of all main-belt asteroids, Trojan asteroids, and nearby fast-moving asteroids seen in our data also have been determined, and most have been reported to the Minor Planet Center. Through simulations and analysis of the existing KBO database, we have investigated the uncertainty to be expected in various KBO orbital parameters as a function of the extent of the astrometric coverage. The results indicate that the heliocentric distance of an object and the inclination of its orbit can be narrowly constrained with observations from a single apparition. Accurate determination of semimajor axis and eccentricity, on the other hand, requires astrometric data extending over additional apparitions. Based on the observed distribution of orbital inclinations in our sample, we have estimated the true distribution of orbital inclinations in the Kuiper belt and find it to be similar to that of the short-period comets. This result is consistent with the commonly held belief that the Kuiper belt is the source region of the short-period comets.
The location of Planet X
"I would like to thank Tom van Flandern, who first convinced me that Planet X might be real and worth looking for, and whose thinking guided the initial stages of this project. Ken Seidelmann gave me access to the Uranus and Neptune residual data, as well as continued advice and criticism on the project in general. Finally, special thanks to Conley Powell, who continually kept me abreast of his progress in his calculations, as I attempted to do for him.
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